Should Municipal Bankruptcy Be a Last Resort?

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November 3, 2015. Share on Twitter

Complexities of Democracy & Municipal Bankruptcy. On the eve of an election, San Bernardino’s voters, tomorrow, could help determine or reshape the city’s chances of getting out of municipal bankruptcy—especially with regard to how any plan of debt adjustment addresses public safety and taxes. There are three Council seats at stake, as well as the city’s Treasurer. In a city where key votes related to its efforts to exit bankruptcy have been decided by one vote margins, this election could well reshape the city’s future—indeed, determine whether it will have a future. In the Council races, Councilman John Valdivia is running unopposed, while 5th Ward incumbent Henry Nickel is being challenged. Next door, with current Councilmember Rikke Van Johnson retiring, there is a heated four-way race. In the 7th Ward, incumbent Jim Mulvihill, who was elected two years ago in a recall election, is facing four challengers.

Polee, Polee. In Liberia, the elders in the village, Konweaken, where I lived and worked, used to caution us with those words—which, literally, translate to “slowly, slowly; but surely.” So too credit rating company Standard and Poor’s seems to be cautioning Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel in the wake of his success in gaining passage a record $548 million increase in the Windy City’s property tax—warning the adoption of the city’s budget and record tax increase represent notable progress, but, nevertheless, adding: “While the actions taken in this budget to raise property taxes are intended to address the cost pressures in 2016, they may not be sufficient to mitigate the city’s financial stress…In our view, the extent of the city’s structural imbalance, when factoring in required pension contributions, will take multiple years to rectify,” noting that Chicago confronts some $20 billion in unfunded public pension obligations—and that the pace with which the city plans to stabilize its pension obligations will continue to “place pressure on the city’s budget—one of the primary drivers of our rating.” S&P rates Chicago’s general obligation debt BBB-plus with a negative outlook. In its new analysis, S&P analysts Helen Samuelson, John Kenward, and Jane Ridley noted the property tax increase was an “important first step” toward dealing with skyrocketing public safety contributions under a 2010 state mandate; nevertheless, the trio expressed apprehension over the plan’s reliance on approval by the seemingly dysfunctional state of a re-amortization of the police and firefighter fund contribution schedule. Chicago’s proposal would reduce by $220 million the amount due next year to $328 million: if the proposed changes are not approved by the state, the city will owe, instead, $550 million. Under the city-adopted plan, Chicago would phase in the changes over five years to an actuarially required contribution (ARC) level which, under Illinois’ 2010 mandate, is supposed to take effect in 2016—with the first year’s payment finalized by the end of this year—a problematic deadline given the stalemate in Springfield—and failure, as the S&P trio noted, would put “even more stress on the city’s budget.” Chicago’s contributions to its four pension funds now run to $978 million, a 78% increase from the $550 million the city budgeted in 2015, and the deteriorated fiscal condition of its pension funds appear to be falling far short. S&P also expressed concerns over the long -term impact of a looming Illinois Supreme Court ruling deciding the fate of Chicago’s 2014 pension reforms to its laborers and municipal funds—changes on appeal to the Illinois Supreme Court in the wake of rejection by the lower court, with oral arguments looming this month. If successful in its appeal, Chicago would see public pension payments due next year fall by about $100 million. Nevertheless, the city would still need to come up with a plan to keep the funds solvent that does not rely on benefit cuts.

Won’t You Be My Neighbor? Wayne County has filed a class action suit against Wyandotte, a small city of about 25,000 inside of Wayne County, over tax revenues which were supposed to be collected as part of a judgment levy earlier this year. Wayne County is alleging Wyandotte and its Downtown Development Authority and Tax Increment Finance Authority instead collected taxes intended for the judgment levy for their own use. The levy in question derives from a ruling last June which requires Wayne County to replenish funds it pulled from a retirement fund. In its filing, Wayne County charged: “The (city of Wyandotte, its Downtown Development Authorities, and Tax Increment Finance Authorities) have stated that they…intend to capture revenue raised from a special purpose millage levied by Wayne County…(They) have misconstrued applicable law to conclude that they are required to capture revenue from the judgment levy…If (the city of Wyandotte, its DDA and TIFA) divert a portion of the judgment levy to their own use, the county will be unable to satisfy the judgment levy, because the revenue collected will be insufficient.” A key reasoning behind the filing by Wayne County—which is in a state of fiscal emergency, is to protect against any intergovernmental precedent whereby other municipalities, development districts, or tax increment financing authorities would not capture and use revenues from the judgment levy. While it is unclear how much Wyandotte’s tax increment finance systems have collected, Wayne County’s lawsuit does state “the amount in controversy exceeds $25,000, exclusive of interest and costs,” as it seeks a speedy hearing. Wayne County Commissioners are scheduled to meet Thursday to hear further updates on the matter, which relates to a one-time tax on property owners Wayne County adopted last June in order to raise sufficient revenue to pay a $49 million judgment in favor of a Wayne County retiree fund, stemming a lawsuit retirees filed against the county for pulling $32 million from its “Inflation Equity Fund—” the fund which provided retirees what is referred to as the “13th check.” The $49 million made up for the amount taken from the fund, plus lost earnings. In the wake of the ruling, Wayne County Commissioners adopted a resolution to use the delinquent revolving tax fund to pay for the judgment, but County Executive Warren Evans vetoed it. The result was the average Wayne County homeowner had to pay an extra $35 on her or his summer tax bill.

Will the View Be Downhill? The question before U.S. Bankruptcy Judge Alan Stout is with regard to what makes a municipality eligible for chapter 9 bankruptcy. Now the question appears to be coming to a head in the small municipality of Hillview, Kentucky, which became, last August, the first municipality to file for municipal bankruptcy since Detroit did in July of 2013, with Hillview Mayor Jim Eadens stating to the U.S. Bankruptcy court: “I believe that we did everything humanly possible to try to work this out, but we will not commit to something that is too much and that we believe will impair the city too much as far as our obligations to provide care and services to our citizens.” The filing came in the wake of the small city’s unsuccessful appeal of a court ruling ordering it to pay $11.4 million in damages to Truck America Training. Now attorneys for Truck America have challenged Hillview’s request to utilize municipal bankruptcy, citing federal rules which require a municipality to negotiate with all its creditors—not just one—before turning to chapter 9 municipal bankruptcy, noting that the municipality neither tried to make deals, nor did it try to raise taxes on the small city’s growing population. Hillview’s occupational tax, the city’s key source of revenue, is much lower than the region’s average rate: indeed, according to Truck America, raising the rate to 2% from 1.5% would give the small municipality an additional $500,000 in annual reveues. The trucking company attorneys added: “We don’t think they ever seriously tried to raise taxes or negotiate other debts,” and the city had rejected an offer to repay the Truck America debt at a 40% discount the day before the bankruptcy. The company is seeking to convince Judge Stout that Hillview should be ruled ineligible for municipal bankruptcy. In fact, the city appears to have sought to negotiate a repayment deal, including in talks which were led by retired U.S. Bankruptcy Judge and lead rhythm guitar player for the Indubitable Equivalents Steven Rhodes—but those talks led to naught—a breakdown which created apprehension on the part of Mayor Eadens that Truck America would gain the requisite authority to freeze the city’s bank account a second time—with the Mayor noting that when that happened the first time, it “was extremely disruptive, scary, and a real crisis in city operations,” in the city’s court filings. Hillview, a municipality of about 8,000 people had about $13.8 million in debt, compared with revenue of $2.5 million in the 2014 fiscal year. That is, the municipality, at least according to Moody’s analyst Nathan Phelps, is in sufficient fiscal shape to issue municipal bonds to cover losses in legal judgments and pay off the resolution over the course of a decade or, it could increase taxes on wages, business profits and property. That is, there might well be less expensive ways for the city to avoid being towed into federal bankruptcy court—and, with Truck America petitioning the federal bankruptcy court by filing an objection to the city’s petition, claiming “Hillview cannot sustain its burden of establishing eligibility under 11 U.S.C. § 109(c) and has not filed its petition in good faith,” it might well be that the federal court will concur.

Municipal Information. The Center for Integrity and Public Policy in Puerto Rico has started a web site and municipal financial index to provide statistics on Puerto Rico’s 78 cities, http://fiscal.cipp-pr.org: the site will provide comparative rankings of the cities, and will provide information in both English and Spanish, including the financial rank of each of the municipalities overall and on different measures In its press release, the Center found that Puerto Rico’s cities or muncipios were generally in a difficult financial position:
• 70 municipalities have negative net assets (unrestricted);
• 50 municipalities have a general fund deficit;
• 43 municipalities have an accumulated general fund deficit (that is, a negative general fund balance);
• 24 municipalities spend more than 15% of their budget on debt service;
• 40 municipalities receive over 40% of their revenues from the central government;
• Total long-term debt of the municipalities exceeds $5 billion.

OPEN Puerto Rico [http://abrepr.org/], which is not in English, (lo siento!) has, simultaneously announced the launch of a Municipal Financial Health Index for all 78 municipalities, noting: “With this index we are providing a new measurement tool that will allow residents to compare their municipality to the others on the island utilizing a series of standardized financial indicators…Mayors can often arrive at their own conclusions about the financial health of their municipality, but now they can do it using the index and its underlying indicators and data that is information that can be independently verified,” with the financial information on the site current to FY2013. Over time as new data becomes available, OPEN Puerto Rico will update the financial information and the index values. The index values are based on a statistical analysis of 13 financial indicators and how municipalities compare to the current Puerto Rico municipal averages. The indicators of short-term financial health have a greater weight than the long-term measures, Cruz said. The index can take positive and negative values with no particular maximum or minimum value. It indicates how far each city or town is from the mean financial condition of the Puerto Rico municipalities. Positive values indicate the municipalities are better than average and negative values show the reverse. The index values are currently not on the web site proper but in a Spanish language paper which is linked on the web site.

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Complexities of Democracy & Municipal Bankruptcy

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October 29, 2015. Share on Twitter

Complexities of Democracy & Municipal Bankruptcy. With election day just around the corner, San Bernardino Mayor Carey Davis spent an evening with constituents answering questions, including the inevitable ones about the status of the municipality’s 2012 municipal bankruptcy filing—where the city’s plan of adjustment has long since missed the deadline for submission set by U.S. Bankruptcy Judge Meredith Jury—and where, of course, next week’s election, if there are changes, could create still further disruption. Indeed, Mayor Davis admitted, in response to several residents’ questions, that San Bernardino is not there yet and confronts hard choices in putting together making further “haircuts” before its plan will be ready. Speaking to about 30 residents at Jovi’s Diner for his second “Evening with the Mayor,” he offered updates on key issues—and sought input. He discussed what he termed “seven strategies” the city had identified over the course of five strategic planning sessions or community meetings the city’s leaders had convened with citizens earlier this year, in an effort, he said, to demonstrate the impact community input can have, noting: “As a result of that process, public safety is a top priority of the recovery plan,” noting the city has hired more police, created a park ranger program, and used federal grants to purchase police body cameras and new patrol cars. (See: http://www.city-data.com/crime/crime-San-Bernardino-California.html). Nevertheless, as can be discerned from the data, the challenge of public safety remains, as the Mayor noted, an issue: “Our police are very engaged in trying to eradicate some of the problems in our community, but they’re overwhelmed at times with the heavy call volume.” On the related public safety front, Mayor Davis said the city was continuing in its efforts to outsource or regionalize emergency fire and rescue services with surrounding San Bernardino County, noting: “We’re working through the hoops and hurdles, but we hope to have that done probably by July of next year.” One of the hurdles has been the legal and political challenge by the fire union—a challenge with which Judge Jury has previously concurred with San Bernardino’s fire union was done without required negotiation. Nevertheless, the city and the Local Agency Formation Commission for San Bernardino County, the commission which is in charge of approving San Bernardino’s efforts to annex itself into the San Bernardino County Fire Protection District voted unanimously last month to make that and two related applications its top priority—a focus meant to ensure the annexation process can be completed by next July 1st for the applicants, which include San Bernardino, the Twenty-nine Palms Water District, and Hesperia Fire Protection District. Mayor Davis also pointed out other signs of progress, including the San Manuel Gateway College, a project of Loma Linda University Health with an expected 2016 completion date, which the Mayor reports will create career paths for local students while increasing the number of patient visits nearly tenfold from 30,000 to 200,000 per year. He said the city had issued more than 2,000 new business licenses over the last year—and that, for the first time in decades, the San Bernardino City Unified School District had registered higher graduation rates—and that the city’s Middle College High School had ranked ninth among California’s nearly 2,000 schools.

The Human Side of Municipal Bankruptcy. The bankruptcies of Central Falls and Detroit, perhaps more than any others, and the significant human and fiscal costs, appear to have been central to the exceptional efforts Wayne County, the jurisdiction encompassing and surrounding Detroit, has taken to avoid going into municipal bankruptcy—steps including reducing retirement health care benefits and transferring some of its retirees from employer-paid group health care to a system under which they will receive a monthly stipend enabling purchase of a plan on the federal Health Insurance Marketplace or a plan through the insurance company Wayne County has contracted with to manage the day-to-day administration of the stipend program. The seemingly harsh steps came in the wake of the State of Michigan’s declaration of a financial emergency in the county—a declaration short of municipal bankruptcy, but which triggered a consent agreement between Wayne County and the state which gives Wayne County Executive Warren Evans some powers normally made available only to emergency managers. It seems the experience with the largest municipal bankruptcy in American history has yielded some lessons learned which could be valuable to Michigan’s taxpayers, and Wayne County’s future. Nevertheless, there will be costs. That is to write that Wayne County continues to grapple with a recurring budgetary shortfall that stems from the steep, $100 million annual drop in property tax revenues since 2008. Wayne County officials have been able to drop the deficit be nearly half—nearly $30 million from a $52 million structural deficit. For the longer term challenge, the county faces an underfunded pension system, underfunded by $910.5 million, according to its most recent actuarial report—an underfunding which has been bleeding Wayne County’s general fund by about $20 million annually to prevent it from going under. That is, with the unique authority conferred by the state, the County has been acting with conferred state authority to take extraordinary fiscal steps to avert going into municipal bankruptcy—steps under which Mr. Evans last April announced a plan to cut $230 million from the budget over four years, including reducing health care benefits for employees, eliminating health care for future retirees, and restructuring the pension system—with the transition set to begin at the end of next month when the current health care plan ends and the new one takes effect on the first of December. County officials estimate some 4,000 retirees will be eligible. As James Canning, a Wayne County spokesperson noted: “We understand change is never easy…But moving from employer-paid health care to a stipend program was necessary to improve the long-term financial health of the county. We really appreciate our retirees’ understanding as we move through this process.” The plan also means health care benefits for the county’s current retirees will be affected: Wayne County officials switched an employer-paid group health care plan for retirees to giving them a monthly stipend—and has, in an effort to try to help its retirees through the wrenching process—hosted 13 informational meetings for retirees at sites across Metro Detroit in recent weeks, as well as set up an 800-number and a website at http://waynecounty.amwins.com/ to answer retirees’ questions about their health care benefits. Under the plan, Wayne County employees who retired before 2007 and are eligible for Medicare will receive a $130 monthly stipend for themselves and one for eligible spouses. Wayne County employees who retired before 2007 and are not Medicare eligible will receive a monthly stipend based on their household income: e.g., a retiree with a spouse or single dependent and who earns less than $35,000 a year, will receive a $150 monthly stipend; a retiree with a spouse who earns between $35,000 and $65,000 will receive $300 a month. Under the plan, retirees may buy insurance through a broker or an independent agent, or directly from an insurance carrier, or obtain coverage through a spouse’s employer. Prior to this change, as in many cities and counties, retirees paid a minimal amount out of their own pockets for health care. In Wayne County, for instance, most county retirees paid about $90 per month for coverage for themselves, two people or a family with Blue Cross or Health Alliance Plan under last year’s benefits structure, according to the county. Retirees in the supervisory unit paid about $44 a month for single coverage, $104 for two people and $122 for a family. In addition, county retirees paid a yearly deductible of $500 for themselves and $1,000 for a family. Co-pays for doctor’s visits ranged from $30 to 20 percent for general services from in-network health care providers. Under the new change, the county expects to realize savings of nearly $22 million in FY2015-16 alone. According to the County, effective this December 1st, the county will transfer about 4,000 retirees from employer-paid group health insurance to a monthly-stipend system. County employees who retired prior to 2007 and are Medicare-eligible will receive a monthly $130 stipend for themselves and one for spouses, if eligible; employees who retired before 2007 and are not Medicare-eligible will receive a monthly stipend based on their household income. Here is how it will impact county retirees who are not Medicare-eligible:

Single retiree:

■$100 for income less than $30,000
■$200 for income of $30,000-$45,000
■$400 for income $45,000-plus
Retiree and spouse or one dependent
■$150 for income less than $35,000
■$300 for income of $35,000-$65,000
■$750 for income of $65,000-plus
Family
■$150 for income less than $40,000
■$300 for income of $40,000-$55,000
■$400 for income of $55,000-$70,000
■$800 for income of $70,000-plus

Source: Wayne County

Down Under. Rene Vollgraaff and Xola Potelwa, writing for Bloomberg this week, noted that South Africa’s credit rating could drop to junk in “just a matter of time.” Fitch and Moody’s Investors Service, which rate the nation’s debt two steps above sub-investment, are set to bring their assessments in line with S&P’s at the lowest investment-grade level, noting that another step down would start triggering capital outflows. The cost of insuring South Africa’s dollar debt against default for five years has climbed 58 basis points in the past 12 months to 248, compared with the 142 median of five emerging-market economies with similar ratings at Moody’s and Fitch, and 215 for those rated one level lower. Weakening tax revenue is putting pressure on the country’s budget deficit, even as the country is close to a recession and confronting a 25 percent jobless rate. The budget deficit will widen from earlier forecasts, reaching 3.3 percent in the fiscal year through March 2017 and 3.2 percent in the following year. The federal government debt is projected to reach almost 50 percent of GDP this year. Having lived and worked in Africa—and visited Johannesburg last year, this national fiscal challenge, unsurprisingly, led me to apprehension about the fiscal fallout for the nation’s cities. A 2013 study by the South Africa Fiscal and Financial Commission grouped South Africa’s municipalities into three categories: fiscally neutral, fiscal watch, and fiscally distressed, based on short-term and long-term indicators. According to the short-term indicators, fiscally healthy municipalities decreased (from 34 per cent in 2011/12 to 24 per cent in 2012/13), and the number of municipalities in the fiscal watch and fiscally distressed categories increased. However, the long-term analysis revealed that a large percentage of municipalities are fiscally healthy, with the number of fiscal distressed municipalities remaining relatively low. The study recommended the federal government should develop an early warning system, which would detect municipalities heading towards fiscal distress. Once the probability of fiscal stress was detected, further investigation would be needed to identify the underlying root causes and frame appropriate and timely responses.

The question then becomes, what might that mean for South Africa’s cities? It was, after all, just three years ago that some 64 municipalities in that country were named on a list of financially distressed municipalities, where the report noted: “From evidence to date, it is clear that much of local government is indeed in distress, and that this state of affairs has become deeply rooted within our system of governance.” The assessments were designed to ascertain the root causes of distress in many of the country’s 283 municipalities in order to inform a national turn-around strategy for municipalities; they were carried out in all nine of South Africa’s provinces. One key finding was an overall vacancy rate of 12 percent for senior managers in local government, demonstrating the challenge—a challenge not unlike in many cities in the U.S.—of attracting the most competent managers—especially an issue for municipalities in distress, which often lack both the financial wherewithal, not to mention the budget to attract the top talent. Or, as the South African report found, insufficient municipal capacity due to lack of scarce skills, along with poor financial management, corruption, and service delivery delays all combined for disproportionate municipal fiscal instability and unsustainability. The report also found that the disparity in skills was exacerbated by the decline of municipal professional associations and poor linkages between local government and the tertiary education sector: “Functional overreach and complexity are forcing many municipalities into distress mode, exacerbated by the poor leadership and support from other spheres and stakeholders.” The report found that the distressed municipalities lacked financial and human resources to deliver on their mandate and citizens’ expectations. Or, as we wrote then: when we were in Johannesburg, the news reported: “Most people are not entirely clear about what the officials in this amorphous government department do all day long beyond, presumably, going to a great many meetings with various levels of government, chiefs and tribal councils, listening attentively, nodding sympathetically, and then going home to watch TV…but while the man in the pothole street might not be clear about the purpose and day-to-day functioning of cooperative governance…the minister of finance would have been acutely aware of the need to sort out local and provincial government where mayors and MEC’s buy themselves fancy 4X4’s from the public purse (even the provincial ambulance budget, if that’s what it takes), because their administrations either can’t or can’t be bothered to fix their roads….The job of cooperative governance minister might be less glamorous than divvying up the public sector kitty and deciding who gets taxed how much, but it is, in every sense, a real job, just one that hasn’t been done terribly well until now….”

The Importance of Being Earnest for a Municipality in federal Bankruptcy Court

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September 21, 2015

Don’t Count Your Marbles Before They’s Hatched. In a decision U.S. Bankruptcy Judge Meredith Jury acknowledged “puts a bunch of marbles on the road to reorganization” for San Bernardino, Judge Jury last Thursday ruled San Bernardino had not met its legal obligation to bargain with the fire union before outsourcing the Fire Department. The costly setback now means the city has an expensive pothole to repair—something which will consume both time and the city’s inadequate fiscal resources—and as the municipal election and the consequently related issues draw ever closer. San Bernardino, to comply with Judge Jury’s decision, will now have to re-open negotiations if it is to implement its proposed fire services outsourcing—a key fulcrum in its proposed plan of debt adjustment: a plan through which the city had anticipated operating and capital savings, as well as new parcel tax revenues, which would have increased annual general fund revenues by $12 million. The rocky road to exiting municipal bankruptcy also demonstrated the dysfunction created by the city’s fiscal year, throwing off the finely honed timeline under which the proposed outsourcing would have become by July 1. Missing that deadline means waiting 12 months for the beginning of the next fiscal year. If there is one fiscal ray of hope, it is that Judge Jury determined San Bernardino could continue negotiating an interim contract with the San Bernardino County fire district and working through the annexation process required by the Local Agency Formation Commission for San Bernardino County.

The legal setback for the city could make its road to exiting bankruptcy steeper, as San Bernardino’s integrity also appeared to be at risk. While Judge Jury claimed she was uninterested in assigning blame with regard to the negotiation breakdown between San Bernardino and its fire union, telling the courtroom the future should instead be the focus, she was critical of San Bernardino’s claim that it had met about fire outsourcing—a claim Judge Jury found to be contradicted by the city’s own evidence: According to a transcript of a meeting last October at which the city said it had negotiated over outsourcing, for instance, labor attorney Linda Daube and City Manager Allen Parker both say multiple times that contracting out is not part of the proposal they were discussing, with Mr. Parker, according to the transcript, stating: “I am in no position to even recommend that.” That meeting preceded last October’s imposition of new terms of employment on the city’s firefighters, terms which Judge Jury had ruled the city could implement, albeit, as she put it, she had not ruled on the specifics with regard to what the city imposed—adding that, once that happened, San Bernardino, essentially, had used up what she referred to as its “free pass” that municipal bankruptcy gave it to change contracts without going through the normally required process: “Once they have changed the terms and conditions of employment…my reading is they have created then a new status quo, and if they want to modify it further, then they have to modify it under state law, which would require bargaining with the union.”

Judge Jury further noted it was “suspect” that San Bernardino reported in September that it had authorized the city manager in an April closed session meeting to request proposals to provide fire services. But, Judge Jury, who has prior experience representing cities before becoming a judge, said that under California’s open meeting law, the Brown Act, that decision would normally be made in open session —and actions taken during closed session are usually reported publicly immediately afterward — not months later, after a litigant says authorization was never given, adding: “The timing of this is disturbing…It would appear that that (purported closed session vote) was not done, but I can’t make a finding on that today.” In the courtroom, fire union attorney Corey Glave said he might argue that San Bernardino had violated the Brown Act provision which mandates city council approval of contracts over $25,000—adding that because of that the Request for Proposals was improperly issued and would have to be discarded, he would testify at a hearing next week whether the union would pursue that argument. That created still another uh-oh moment, with Judge Jury telling the courtroom that if she agrees with that claim, it could set the city’s municipal bankruptcy case back months—meaning the prohibitively expensive municipal bankruptcy will almost certainly become the longest in American history, and leading Judge Jury to note: “I take this ruling very seriously…“I understand it has a significant impact on this case, and it’s probably the first time I’ve ruled in such a way against the city.”

Steepening Hurdles to Bankruptcy Completion. The timeline setback—and diminution of assets that might be available to be divvied up under a revised San Bernardino plan of debt adjustment can only make more miserable some of San Bernardino’s other creditors, for now the wait will not just be longer, but the assets available under any revised plan of debt adjustment are certain to be smaller. So it can hardly come as a surprise that municipal bond insurers—who now stand to be on the hook for ever increasing amounts—are objecting to San Bernardino’s just sent back to the cleaners proposed plan of debt adjustment. Paul Aronzon, of municipal bond insurer Ambac, filing for his client, wrote, referring to the pre-rejected plan of debt adjustment: “The long-awaited plan is a hodgepodge of unimpaired classes and settlements in various stages – some finalized, some announced but not yet documented, and some that are hinted at, but appear to be more aspirational than real, at this point.” Ambac could be on the hook for its insurance for some $50 million in pension obligation bonds. Fellow worrier and insurer, Erste Europäische Pfandbrief-und Kommunalkreditbank AG (EEPK) attorneys fretted too, claiming San Bernardino proposed “an incomplete set of solutions” based upon “internally inconsistent, and stale, data.” Ambac’s attorneys, referring to the now tossed out plan of debt adjustment’s proposed/anticipated savings from outsourcing fire services and other revenue sources, which the municipal bond insurers claim were not considered in calculating the impairment to the city’s pension bondholders, adding that San Bernardino had not justified the need for $185 million in capital investments to the city’s infrastructure and that the municipality had failed to include $3.9 million in income from the sale of assets to be transferred to the city from its redevelopment successor agency. But they saved their greatest vitriol to claim that the most remarkable feature of San Bernardino’s now partially rejected plan of debt adjustment came from the city’s proposed “draconian” impairment of both the pension obligation bond claims and general unsecured claims, on which the city has proposed to pay roughly 1 penny on the dollar, according to Ambac’s attorneys. EEPK’s attorneys told the federal court that if San Bernardino had utilized its ability to raise sales and use taxes or even parking taxes, it would be able to repay the city’s pension obligation debt in full, or at least substantially more than the 1 percent offered, noting that the severity of the discount warranted explanation. Nevertheless, EEPK’s attorneys added, “[N]owhere does the disclosure statement even attempt to articulate how or why the city formulated the oppressive treatment it proposes for these classes,” in urging Judge Jury to reject the plan—adding that : “In short, the city must be held to its twin burdens of both disclosure and proof that its plan endeavors to pay creditors as much as the city can reasonably afford, not as little as the city thinks it can get away with…The city can and should do better for its creditors — and indeed must do so if its plan is to be confirmed.”

Bankruptcy Protection? The Obama administration late last week urged Congress to move precipitously to address Puerto Rico’s debt crisis, with U.S. Treasury Secretary Jacob Lew stating: “Congress must act now to provide Puerto Rico with access to a restructuring regime…Without federal legislation, a resolution across Puerto Rico’s financial liabilities would likely be difficult, protracted, and costly.” The warning came in the wake of Puerto Rican elected leaders warning the U.S. territory might be insolvent by the end of the year—and with Congress only scheduled to meet for portions of eight weeks before the end of the year. In the Treasury letter to Congressional leaders, Sec. Lew appeared to hint the Administration is proposing to go beyond the municipal bankruptcy legislation proposed to date: rather, any Congressional action should, effectively, treat the Commonwealth in a manner to the way municipalities are under current federal law, so that Puerto Rico, as well as its municipalities, would be eligible to restructure through a federal, judicially overseen process—or, as Secretary Lew wrote to U.S. Sen. Judiciary Chairman Orrin Hatch (R-Utah) in July, “a central element of any federal response should include a tested legal bankruptcy regime that enables Puerto Rico to manage its financial challenges in an orderly way.”

The Rocky Fiscal Road to Recovery. Wayne County’s road to emergency fiscal recovery was helped by a Wayne County Circuit Court decision denying a request from a union representing more than 2,500 Wayne County workers to block any wage and benefit changes made under the county’s consent agreement with the state, but fiscally threatened by the County’s recent disclosure that the IRS is conducting a targeted audit of $200 million of bonds—a problem, because, as Moody’s moodily notes: the fiscally stressed largest county in Michigan could face a hard time covering the full costs of the bond payments were the bonds deemed taxable. The denial came in the wake of a Wayne Circuit Court restraining order last week to block wage and benefits changes for Wayne County Sheriff Supervisory Local 3317 union’s affiliates, last week. The decision, according to county officials, “[P]ermit Wayne County to continue its restructuring efforts and move closer to ending the financial emergency.” In its suit, the union had alleged the defendants “have illegally bound themselves by a ‘consent agreement’ with the state’s Executive Branch,” and that “protected and accrued benefits will be dramatically slashed or terminated, contrary to the U.S. Constitution.” The successful appeal comes in the wake of the county’s budget action last week to eliminate what it estimates is left of Wayne County’s $52 million structural deficit; the budget decreases Wayne’s unfunded health care liabilities by 76 percent, reduces the need to divert funds from departments to cover general fund expenditures and, mayhap most critically, creates a pathway to solvency. On the investigation front, however, the county’s recent disclosure that the IRS is conducting a targeted audit of $200 million of bonds is, according to Moody’s, not such good news; rather it is a credit blow for Wayne—to which Moody’s currently assigns the junk-rating of Ba3. The audit involves some $200 million of recovery zone economic development bonds Wayne County issued in 2010 to finance construction of a jail in downtown Detroit—a jail which has subsequently been halted amid cost overruns—and municipal bonds for which the county currently receives a federal subsidy equal to 45% of annual interest payments on the bonds. As Moody’s moodily notes: “The [IRS] examination is credit negative, because it raises the possibility that the county will have to repay $37 million of previously received subsidies and lose $41 million of subsidies over the next five years,” or, as Moody’s analyst Matthew Butler succinctly put it: “Such a loss would further strain the county’s weak but improving fiscal condition,” adding that “Due to statutory limitations on revenue raising, the county would not be able to raise revenue for the increased interest cost.” Mr. Butler gloomily added: “[M]anagement would be challenged in offsetting the loss by implementing further cuts beyond the significant operating cuts already made.” Unsurprisingly, the jail in question has its own financially sordid history: undertaken by former Wayne County Executive Robert Ficano, the fiscal undertaking had led to the indictment of Wayne County’s former CFO and two others connected to the project for misconduct and willful neglect of duty tied to the jail financing. Unsurprisingly, current Wayne County Executive Warren Evans has said that addressing the failed project is his top priority after eliminating the structural deficit. That is a fiscal blight for which successful action is important not just to Wayne County, but also for Detroit.

A Big Hill of Debt to Climb. Hillview, the Kentucky home rule-class city of just over 8,000 in Bullitt County—which filed for chapter 9 municipal bankruptcy last month—has been anticipating that Truck America LLC—the municipality’s largest creditor–would “aggressively” challenge the city’s petition—where objections must be filed by a week from Thursday—reports, according to City Attorney Tammy Baker in her discussions with the Bond Buyer, that Hillview plans no restructuring of any of its municipal bonds in its proposed plan of debt adjustment. The small municipality is on the losing side of a court judgment to Truck America for $11.4 million plus interest—a debt significantly larger than the $1.78 million it owes as part of a 2010 pool bond issued by the Kentucky Bond Corp. and $1.39 million in outstanding general obligation bonds Hillview issued in 2010. Nevertheless, City Attorney Tammy Baker advised The Bond Buyer Hillview “does not intend to restructure any of its outstanding municipal bonds through the filing.” The U.S. bankruptcy court’s acceptance of the municipality’s filing triggered the automatic stay on any city obligations, thereby protecting Hillview’s ability to retain some $3,759 in interest payments to the company which have been accruing each and every day on its outstanding trucking debt. According to the city’s filing, the judgment, plus interest totaled $15 million that is due in full—an amount equivalent to more than five times the municipality’s annual revenues. Nonetheless, Moody’s opines that Hillview could face an uphill battle in the federal bankruptcy court in convincing the court that it is insolvent and, thereby, eligible for chapter 9, because, as the credit rating agency notes: “Generally, a municipality must prove that it is not paying its debts on time or is unable to pay the obligations as they become due.” But Moody’s notes the small city could raise its property and/or business license taxes—or it could even issue more debt to finance its obligations to TruckAmerica.

Steep Roads to Municipal Solvency

eBlog

September 17, 2015

The Steep Road to Fiscal Recovery. Notwithstanding Detroit’s successful recovery from the nation’s largest municipal bankruptcy and the signs of an apparent turnaround in surrounding Wayne County, the fiscal challenge and importance of Michigan’s Governor Rick Snyder and the legislature reaching an agreement as part of pending state transportation financing legislation to enable the Motor City to collect its income tax from commuters becomes more readily apparent in the wake of the release yesterday by the U.S. Census Bureau of its report finding Detroit to be the most impoverished major city in the U.S. with 39.3 percent of its population living below a poverty line of $24,008 for a family of four—even as the report found Michigan to be among 12 states which realized a decline in the percentage of people living in poverty in 2014—albeit Michigan’s poverty rate remained higher than the national average. Census found Flint, just an hour from Detroit, to be the nation’s poorest city, with 40.1 percent of its residents living in poverty. If there was a bright spot in the new Census data, it was a decline in the percentage of Michiganders without health insurance coverage: Census reported a decrease from 1,072,000 in 2013 to 837,000 in 2014–due in part to Michigan’s Medicaid expansion, which began enrolling residents in April 2014. Nevertheless, the numbers led Laura Lein, Dean of the School of Social Work at the University of Michigan, to comment: “The economic recovery is not yet affecting poverty or wage levels…It’s simply not affecting the part of the population that is economically challenged.” According to the new Census report, poverty rates remained flat across most of the Metro Detroit, and median income remained stagnant, or, as Richard Lichtenstein, associate professor of health management and policy at the University of Michigan’s School of Public Health, put it: “Most of the growth in income has been happening among the affluent and very little of it has been floating down to people at the lower income level.”

Poverty in big cities: Below, according to the new Census data, are the U.S. cities with the highest 2014 poverty levels:

  • Detroit, Michigan 39.3
  • Cleveland, Ohio 39.2
  • Fresno, California 30.5
  • Memphis, Tennessee 29.8
  • Milwaukee, Wisconsin 29
  • St. Louis, Missouri 28.5
  • Stockton, California 28.1
  • New Orleans, Louisiana 27.8
  • Miami, Florida 26.2
  • Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 26
    *Cities with population of more than 300,000
    Source: U.S. Census Bureau

Learning to Escape Poverty. The depressing Census numbers with regard to poverty in Detroit emphasize the importance of learning opportunities for the city’s children—but there the fiscal challenge remains daunting: Detroit Public Schools’ (DPS) deficit is increasing by millions of dollars. The system is issuing millions in new debt—at seemingly usurious rates: according to a quarterly report issued yesterday by the Michigan Department of Education, DPS, Michigan’s largest school district, has projected its deficit at $238.2 million as of June 30, or nearly 50 percent greater than a year earlier—that is: a trajectory towards bankruptcy—and making DPS among 14 Michigan school districts whose deficits climbed in 2014-15—a depressing trajectory which Michelle Zdrodowski, a DPS spokesperson, described as due to lower revenue from property taxes and asset sales, higher maintenance and utility costs, and a charge for legal contingencies. DPS, at the end of last week, borrowed $121.2 million through the Michigan Finance Authority—benefitting from being able to borrow through the lower interest rates than it would have been forced to pay on its own (the Michigan state aid revenue notes carry a 5.75 percent interest rate and are due Aug. 22, 2016); nevertheless, according to a state document detailing the financing, DPS has $337.8 million in outstanding loans. Thus the new borrowing to keep the system above water – so-called cash flow borrowing — to “assist with immediate cash flow needs” — coming at the commencement of the academic year (an option in Michigan made available to all public school districts on an annual basis to provide funding during those months when school districts do not receive state aid payment) nevertheless is unlikely to be the kind of math that would lead to good grades—or, as Gary Naeyaert, who leads a school-choice advocacy group, the Great Lakes Education Project, described the fiscal apprehension yesterday: “Michigan’s taxpayers should be outraged by DPS’ continuing efforts to increase their operational debt by borrowing money they simply won’t pay back…When you’re in a hole this deep, the first priority should be to stop digging.” He added that the seemingly usurious interest rate on the loan is a sign of the Detroit Public School District’s increasing fiscal peril: “The standard interest rate on these School Aid Notes is 1 percent for creditworthy districts…The fact that DPS is being charged 5.75 percent indicates what a terrible financial deal this is.” DPS, which has been experiencing declining enrollment for decades, has run a deficit in nine of the past 11 fiscal years—a period during which four state-appointed emergency managers have been named.

Pathway to Solvency. Meanwhile, in surrounding Wayne County, Michigan, County Executive Warren Evans yesterday advised his fellow elected commissioners that the County had reached tentative labor agreements with its employee unions, with his spokesperson stating: “We anticipate announcing major labor agreements with all of our unions in the very near future.” Even without providing details, the spokesperson for the County reported the new contracts would enable Wayne County to achieve the savings it needs without a 5 percent wage cut that the Evans’ administration had proposed earlier this year—a sign which, he indicated—was likely to augur that the unions will vote on the tentative agreements in the next few days. The seemingly upbeat news came as the Commission, meeting yesterday as a committee of the whole, voted preliminary approval to Mr. Evans’ proposed $1.56 billion county budget for FY 2015-16. That vote came as Mr. Evans submitted a projected, reduced $1.45 billion budget for the 2016-2017 fiscal year—with final votes expected today. In proposing the new budget, Mr. Evans told his elected colleagues that his budget would eliminate what remains of Wayne County’s $52 million structural deficit, that it would decrease unfunded health care liabilities by 76 percent, and reduce the need to divert funds from departments to cover general fund expenditures. In short, for a county in state-designated fiscal emergency, the budget would create a pathway to solvency. The county, Michigan’s largest—and the home to Detroit—had successfully sought a state declaration of a financial emergency last June, leading to the consent agreement with the state approved last month. Notwithstanding its potentially disappearing structural deficit, Wayne County still confronts one other daunting hurdle: a $910.5 million underfunded public pension system.

The Sharing Economy. The San Bernardino County Fire Protection District—the body key to the city of San Bernardino’s proposal, as part of its municipal bankruptcy plan of debt adjustment before the U.S. bankruptcy court, to annex or incorporate the city’s fire department—yesterday voted (with the vote taking place in San Bernardino City Council chambers) unanimously to make that and two related applications its top priority, an action intended to ensure the annexation process can be completed by next July 1st. If approved, the savings to bankrupt San Bernardino could be close to $12 million annually, coming from both the operating and capital savings, as well as the related parcel tax (a $143-per-year tax on each of the city’s 56,000 parcels) which requires annexation to implement. The vote could pave the way for public hearings next February, reconsideration in May, and actual commencement of the process by April—albeit an annexation process which could be terminated if more than 50 percent of registered voters protest, or lead to an election if written protests are received from either 25 to 50 percent of registered voters or at least 25 percent of landowners who own at least 25 percent of the total annexation land value. It turns out that in the emerging, sharing economy; sharing can be a most difficult, hurdled process—even where critical to emerging successfully from municipal bankruptcy.

Robbing a Capitol City’s Fiscal Future. Senior Pennsylvania District Judge Richard P. Cashman, voicing concern and apprehension about former Pennsylvania capitol city Harrisburg Mayor Stephen Reed’s style of governance, has upheld some 485 theft and corruption charges filed by the state attorney general’s office and sent the case to trial. Judge Cashman, ruling in Dauphin County court on Tuesday, ruled probable cause exists in the case against the former Mayor, whom the state attorney general’s office alleges used millions of dollars of municipal bond proceeds to purchase Wild West artifacts for a planned museum: the municipal bond proceeds, according to the prosecutors, were to be dedicated for retrofitting of the city’s municipal incinerator, the city’s school system, the Harrisburg Parking Authority, and the Harrisburg Senators minor-league baseball team, which the city owned at the time. The museum never got off the ground, but the municipal bond financing for the incinerator involved cost overruns which led the city to the brink of insolvency (the city successfully exited receivership in March, 2014); indeed, it was during former Mayor Reed’s long tenure as Mayor (from 1982 to 2009) that Pennsylvania’s capital city plummeted to the brink of bankruptcy. Bond financing overruns from the incinerator project largely accounted for the city’s $600 million-plus liability. At a Sept. 14 preliminary hearing, special agent Craig LeCadre, the lead investigator for Attorney General Kathleen Kane’s office, likened Reed to “a hoarder on steroids,” reporting that his investigators found roughly 10,000 artifacts in the basement of Mr. Reed’s apartment near the state capitol, and prosecutors presented a slide show which featured included a vampire hunting kit, a bronze statue of a cowboy on a bucking bronco, and a Spanish armor suit. They valued the latter two at $19,000 and $14,000, respectively.

Protecting Public Health & Safety in Fiscal Distress. The Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) has reached a tentative settlement with the U.S. Justice Department and EPA under which it will spend $1.5 billion to upgrade and improve its system-wide sewer systems serving the municipalities of San Juan, Trujillo Alto, and portions of Bayamon, Guaynabo and Carolina, according to the U.S. Justice Department—as well as to invest sufficient funds to construct sanitary sewers to serve communities surrounding the Martin Peña Canal—improvements affecting the health and safety of some 20,000 U.S. citizens. Under the terms of the agreement with the Justice Dept., and in recognition of PRASA’s fiscal stress, the Justice Dept. waived civil penalties for violations alleged in a complaint, noting that many of the “provisions of the agreement have been tailored to focus on the most critical problems first, giving more time to address the less critical problems over time.” John Cruden, Assistant Attorney General for the Justice Department’s environment and natural resources division, noted that certain projects required under the 2006 and 2010 agreements had been found to be no longer necessary, because the island’s population has declined, so that the stipulated upgrades were no longer critical to protect public health and safety from the “public’s exposure to serious health risks posed by untreated sewage,” adding that—in reaching the settlement, “The United States has taken Puerto Rico’s financial hardship into account by prioritizing the most critical projects first, and allowing a phased in approach in other areas.” The settlement, which is pending before the U.S. District Court for Puerto Rico, is subject to a 30-day public comment period and must be approved by the federal court.

Advice & Consent

September 15, 2015

Motor City-County Bonds? Wayne County Executive Warren Evans has issued his first order under the County’s consent agreement with the State of Michigan—an order which requires all county employees to comply with the consent agreement and report any potential breaches to his office, and which requires all county departments to obtain permission from the Wayne County CFO prior to entering into any contracts which could be considered debt under the terms of the county’s consent agreement. (The decree requires Wayne to continue to make timely debt payments—and bars the county from filing for chapter 9 municipal bankruptcy while operating under the decree.) Mr. Evans’ order directs county workers to comply with the consent agreement and outlines protocols for breach: “The purpose of issuing this order is to ensure that county employees, elected officials, along with our contractors understand what is required while the consent agreement is in place.” The extraordinary fiscal authority comes as the County—of which Detroit is the seat—is grappling with a $52 million structural deficit, stemming from a $100 million drop in annual property tax revenues since 2008 and an underfunded pension system. The county’s primary pension plan is 45 percent funded and has a liability of $910.5 million, based on its latest actuarial valuation. That is, Wayne County and Detroit’s respective fiscal foundations are inextricably connected. Mr. Evans is seeking to fix the county’s finances under the consent agreement by reducing future pension obligations and retiree benefits and taking other actions to eliminate the structural deficit. Under the agreement, Mr. Evans and the county commission retain their powers and responsibilities: the unique agreement also grants Mr. Evans the power to impose contract terms with the county’s unions if they are unable to hammer out labor agreements after a month of good-faith negotiations—an avenue Mr. Evans has said repeatedly he prefers to reach agreements with the county’s unions at the bargaining table. Among the agreement’s provisions he has emphasized to Wayne County employees:
■All county contracts or agreements must include the requirements of Public Act 436 and the consent agreement.
■All county employees, elected officials or entities that have contracts with the county must inform the executive of any potential breach of the consent agreement.
■Before any contract is entered into that is considered debt under the consent agreement, a copy must be given to the county’s chief financial officer for approval.
In addition, the county has also put up a new web page so that citizens and taxpayers can follow and understand the issues. Mr. Evans noted: “The purpose of issuing this order is to ensure that county employees, elected officials, along with our contractors understand what is required while the consent agreement is in place…It is important for everyone to understand what to expect as we move together through this process to restore our financial health.”

The order which was approved by the County Board last month, comes as Mr. Evans is in the middle of a 30-day period of negotiations with county unions on new labor contracts. Should the negotiations produce no agreements, Wayne County—under the consent agreement with the state, is authorized to impose its own labor contracts. While the 12-page agreement with the State allows Wayne County to try to restructure some of its debt or reach settlements with creditors, it bars Wayne County from issuing any more municipal bonds without state permission. The consent agreement gives Wayne County until Jan. 31st to present the state with a plan for its abandoned jail project in downtown Detroit—an unfinished facility, which was financed with $200 million of municipal bonds. The forlorn project has been abandoned since 2013 due to cost overruns, but, under Wayne’s agreement with the state, Michigan will assume financial oversight over the project. It will be up to Michigan Treasurer Nick Khouri when to release Wayne County from the agreement—and, in any case, under its terms, Michigan will continue to monitor Wayne’s finances for two additional years following any release from the agreement by the state.

Perhaps unsurprisingly, however, the new consent agreement is already being tested: Wayne County is appealing a restraining order won by Wayne County Sheriff Supervisory Local 3317, which is seeking to block changes to sheriff deputies’ wages and benefits made under the county’s consent agreement. The County reports it will seek an emergency appeal of the ruling by Wayne Circuit Judge John Murphy after Wayne County Sheriff Supervisory Local 3317 petitioned the court for relief from changes to compensation the county imposed for command officers at the sheriff’s office—in effect, a challenge not just to Wayne County, but also to the State of Michigan.

Scrambling in Scranton. Even as agent from the Pennsylvania state Attorney General’s office yesterday showed Senior District Judge Richard Cashman slides of many of the artifacts that former Harrisburg Mayor Stephen Reed, who served for 28 years, is charged with illegally using public funds to purchase for museums which never materialized in a preliminary hearing on hundreds of criminal counts including theft, misapplication of government property, criminal solicitation, bribery and tampering with evidence; the losses created continue to wreak fiscal havoc. Elsewhere, yesterday, Scranton Mayor Bill Courtright announced the city likely will lease, rather than sell, its five parking garages and on-street parking meters to a nonprofit organization which will operate them. In addition, the city and financial consultant Henry Amoroso launched a new website, scrantonforward.org, to inform the public about the progress of Scranton’s recovery plan initiatives. Mayor Courtright, in announcing his plan to try to monetize the municipal garages, said the result likely would be a concession lease agreement with the nonprofit National Development Council: “We have taken a disciplined and focused approach to finding solutions to our financial challenges. Step-by-step we are restoring confidence and moving Scranton forward…I am confident that the steps we have taken will provide us with the best possible fit for our city, which will allow us to retain ownership of our parking assets while reducing the financial burden on the City.” The fiscal scrambling comes in the wake of a series of decisions by the City Council three years ago which led to the default by the Scranton Parking Authority (SPA) on payments owed under two loans, one issued in 2009 by Pennstar Bank and another in 2011 by Landmark Community Bank, as well as a June 2012 payment owed by the authority municipal parking bonds. The decision to default on the bank loans resulted in over two-years of litigation; the decision to miss the bond payment resulted in the court appointment of a receiver to oversee the operations of the authority. As Mayor Courtright puts it: “Since coming into office, our focus has been on getting Scranton’s finances back on track…We’ve been able to clear up the Pennstar and Landmark defaults, and now we’re progressing into responsibly monetizing the City’s parking assets so we can eliminate or significantly reduce the bad Parking Authority debt for which the City is now responsible.” Currently, the City must budget about $2.9 million a year to cover SPA-related costs. He said a responsible monetization will take the form of a lease concession, where the City will maintain ownership of valuable parking assets and control over key decisions while shifting burden of excessive debt payments off of Scranton taxpayers, or, as the city’s consultant put it: “Whenever the SPA (the parking authority) cannot make its debt service payments out of its own revenues, the City must make up the difference.” Scranton’s financial consultant, Henry Amoroso added: “The numbers speak for themselves…The City can’t continue to shoulder the burden of SPA-related costs. It’s unsustainable.”

The road back to fiscal sustainability has been steep: On August 23rd, 2012, the City of Scranton took its first step in restoring long term fiscal stability and repairing the City’s creditworthiness by adopting a new Recovery Plan that replaced the 2002 Recovery Plan with a new Recovery Plan to provide the fiscal framework for the City’s governing bodies to follow through 2015: the 2014 Budget called for a tax increase of 49.99%. Additionally, the City of Scranton has increased current refuse fees, which will allow the City to receive an additional $2.2 million dollars. Further revenue enhancements such as increasing the Rental Registration Fee will allow the City to receive an additional $300,000.

Under the new parking arrangement, the plan calls for the city to lease its parking system, to eliminate Scranton Parking Authority debt that the city guarantees, retain ownership of the parking assets, and eliminate a court-appointed receivership which has controlled the parking garages since a 2012 default of SPA debt by that authority and the city. Under the agreement, along with retaining ownership of garages and meters, Scranton will retain veto power over key public policy considerations during the term of the concession lease, such as rate setting and certain capital improvement projects. Upon closing of the transaction, Scranton will be able to retire most SPA debt and refinance leftover debt, called stranded debt, at more favorable rates and terms; the city also will have the opportunity to share in revenue generated from the concessionaire’s operation of Scranton’s parking system. Or, as Mayor Courtright noted, his administration previously cleared up two other related defaults of bank loans which stemmed from the SPA default and harmed Scranton’s creditworthiness: “We have taken a disciplined and focused approach to finding solutions to our financial challenges. Step-by-step we are restoring confidence and moving Scranton forward…I am confident that the steps we have taken will provide us with the best possible fit for our city, which will allow us to retain ownership of our parking assets while reducing the financial burden on the city.”

The Teeter Totter between Voters & Municipal Fiscal Sustainability

eBlog

August 25, 2015

Averting Bankruptcy Dismissal. The San Bernardino City Council yesterday voted 4-3 to move ahead in transferring responsibility for fire and emergency protection to the San Bernardino County Fire Department—an action that automatically triggered a new, $142-per-year tax on every parcel in the city—with the Council’s vote corresponding to the bankrupt city’s plan of debt adjustment pending before U.S. Bankruptcy Judge Meredith Jury. Unsurprisingly, there has been strong citizen opposition to contracting out for fire services—and this is an election year. Nevertheless, city leaders made clear they believe San Bernardino’s credibility in the federal bankruptcy court, and its ability to obtain approval for its proposed plan of debt adjustment required it to be consistent—as well as referencing that between the reduced costs from contracting out and new tax revenues, the city would realize as much as $11-15 million in annual savings. In addition, City Attorney Paul Glassman had warned the Mayor and Council that if the city failed to meet the terms of its own proposed plan of debt adjustment, San Bernardino would risk having its bankruptcy dismissed by Judge Jury—a dismissal that would almost immediately jeopardize the city’s ability to continue to provide essential public services—or, as Mr. Glassman told the Council: “This would have a catastrophic effect on the city such that it could not go on as an ongoing entity.” Nevertheless, the close vote reflected apprehension from Councilmembers who expressed apprehension that the proposed changes might not only jeopardize public safety, but also hurt the city’s already suffering economy. Councilman John Valdivia, speaking against the measure, told his colleagues that his constituents were strongly opposed to the new tax, adding: “We’re not here to bail the city out, one more dime.” Councilman Henry Nickel, who together with Councilmember Valdivia and Councilman Benito Barrios, opposing the proposal, after the meeting warned that San Bernardino was losing what little goodwill it had from citizens who will be asked to approve other taxes as part of the recovery plan.

The bare majority gave the green light to authorize San Bernardino city staff to begin negotiating with San Bernardino County and the County Fire District over the terms of the annexation—at the end of which another City Council vote will follow—a process that City Manager Allen Parker told the elected leaders could take 60 days. Even if the proposal gets to the Local Agency Formation Commission (LAFCO) in 60 days, there would still be no guarantee it will be approved by July 2016, possibly meaning it might not receive formal approval until FY2017: the Commission will have to study the proposal, hold public meetings, and make decisions on it. So even though it will not be subject to a citizen vote in the county, it is not clear what citizens’ reactions and pressure on San Bernardino County elected officials might be. In addition, if 50 percent of registered voters in San Bernardino protest, the proposal would fail. Protests from 25 to 50 percent of voters (or at least 25 percent of the landowners, who also own at least 25 percent of the assessed land value within the city) would trigger an election, according to LAFCO annexation rules.

The Sharing Economy? As state and local leaders know, the art of legislating is not unlike making spaghetti, and so it is that state leaders in Lansing—as part of an effort to help finance Michigan’s transportation infrastructure—have been considering a proposal to help make whole Detroit’s single most important source of municipal revenue: its income taxes—taxes which in 2012 made up about 21 percent of the city’s total revenue. That requires addressing a persistent gap in the law which does not provide authority to require suburban employers of Detroit residents to collect and remit the city’s income taxes. According to the Citizen’s Research Council, in 2011, 38 percent of Detroit residents worked in the city, while 62 percent of city residents were employed in the suburbs. With the House considering surface transportation legislation the Michigan Senate approved last month—a major road funding proposal that could double fuel taxes over four years and eventually raise up to $1.7 billion a year in new revenue for infrastructure—the House has been considering, as part of such a measure—amending the legislation to include a provision to provide authority for new state legislation designed to help Detroit collect city income taxes from residents who commute to the suburbs—but only for Detroit: not for the other 21 municipalities which also rely on municipal income taxes: Albion, Battle Creek, Big Rapids, Detroit, Flint, Grand Rapids, Grayling, Hamtramck, Highland Park, Hudson, Ionia, Jackson, Lansing, Lapeer, Muskegon, Muskegon Heights, Pontiac, Port Huron, Portland, Saginaw, Springfield, and Walker. Under the pending proposal, on behalf of which Detroit Mayor Mike Duggan testified, suburban employers would be required to withhold Motor City income taxes from paychecks of Detroit residents—except for businesses with fewer than 10 employees and less than $500,000 in wages. An alternative would authorize the state to use audit and penalty procedures when it takes over Detroit’s income tax collection in 2016. The Republican-led House Tax Policy Committee has approved legislation which would require suburban employers to withhold Detroit city income taxes from residents’ paychecks, but the outcome will have to await full legislative consideration: The Senate was in session last week, but did not take attendance, votes or introduce bills. Neither the Senate nor the House is expected back in Lansing until after Labor Day.

Any final legislative action by the legislature next month could also face concerns by municipal leaders from the other 21 municipalities which levy personal income taxes—indeed, Grand Rapids Mayor George Heartwell last week made clear he was “flummoxed” that Grand Rapids and 20 other communities were omitted from the legislation, noting he was “caught off guard,” adding he thought “We (referring to all 22 cities) were all on the same page about this,” noting he had met with Detroit Mayor Mike Duggan and several of the other communities that charge an income tax about ways to make collection a requirement for suburban employers. Grand Rapids is one of the exceptions in Michigan in that it collects income tax at a rate of 1.5 percent for residents and 0.75 percent for nonresidents who work in the city. The majority of the 22 cities impose an income tax of 1 percent on residents and 0.5 percent on nonresidents. Detroit has the highest rate with its residents who live and work in the city paying 2.4 percent; nonresidents who work in the city pay 1.2 percent. Eric Lupher, President of the Citizens Research Council of Michigan, said his organization supports equality for all, suggesting that every one of the state’s 276 cities should require employers to withhold city income taxes from employees: “The solution to the problem at hand is if you live or work in a city, then employers need to withhold tax from you…It shouldn’t apply only to cities with populations of 600,000 or more (such as Detroit)…The other thing is we don’t want to create disincentives to living in the cities…Most of the Michigan cities are down-and-up cities. They all are trying to revitalize themselves and be attractive in getting people to move there.”

Holy Cosmos! Fitch became the second credit-rating agency this week to upgrade Wayne County, removing the County’s negative rating watch from some Wayne County municipal bonds and terming Wayne County’s rating outlook “stable,” adding that the County’s approval of a consent agreement with the state to address its financial emergency was a step not only towards improving the county’s credit, but also to improving Wayne County’s fiscal outlook. Under the terms of the agreement, Wayne County Executive Warren Evans is granted the powers of an emergency manager in contract talks with the county’s unions—and, should the two sides be unable to achieve a consensus in good-faith negotiations 30 days after the consent agreement went into effect, he is authorized to impose terms such as lower wages, pension cuts, and employee contribution increases—all as part of a state-local effort to address a $52 million structural deficit—a deficit triggered by a $100 million drop in annual property tax revenue since 2008. Adding to the deficit, the county still has to contend with a significantly underfunded public pension system—as much as $910.5 million, according to the latest actuarial reports.

First Chapter 9 since Detroit. Hillview, a small (pop. just over 8,000) home rule-class city in Bullitt County, Kentucky, about 17 miles south of Louisville, has filed for chapter 9 municipal bankruptcy in the first chapter 9 filing by a municipality since Detroit’s filing more than two years’ ago—making the small city the 65th to file for bankruptcy in more than six decades. The city in Bullitt County about 17 miles south of Louisville listed assets of under $10 million and liabilities between $50 million and $100 million in its bankruptcy petition. Kentucky is one of 12 states which conditionally authorize municipal bankruptcy; however, Kentucky counties are not authorized to file for municipal bankruptcy protection unless the state local debt officer and state local finance officer have first approved said county’s plan of debt adjustment. The legal action was triggered by an $11.4 million judgment against the city for breach of contract after years of protracted litigation over a land sale—and after the municipality had been unable to reach any settlement agreement. Truck America Training LLC prevailed (see City of Hillview v. Truck America Training, No. 2012-CA-001910-MR.) Court of Appeals, Kentucky, March 7, 2014.), gaining an $11.4 million judgment for breach of contract against the city over a land sale. The judgment became final last March, after the Kentucky Supreme Court declined to review the case. Hillview, in its bankruptcy filing, listed assets of under $10 million versus liabilities between $50 million and $100 million. The city’s unsecured claims include $1.39 million of outstanding general obligation bonds issued in 2010, and $1.78 million of debt which is part of a pool bond issued by the Kentucky Bond Corp. in 2010 and operated by the Kentucky League of Cities. The decision to opt for municipal bankruptcy came in the wake of the city’s decision not to accept Truck America’s most recent settlement offer of approximately 40 cents on the dollar. To put those numbers in context, Hillview had total revenues of $2.7 million in FY2014, and a fund balance of $659,723 at the end of the year, according to its 2014 audit. Moreover, in addition to the judgment accumulating interest at 12% per year, the audit determined that Hillview had no insurance coverage available for the breach of contract litigation. S&P, last February, had downgraded Hillview’s full faith and credit GO bonds four notches to BB-plus, citing the judgment, as well as fiscal apprehensions with regard to the municipality’s FY2014 audit. In its analysis, S&P had included an examination of whether the Hillview could issue municipal bonds to pay the Truck America judgment, noting: “We believe the city has legally available options apart from [municipal] bankruptcy.”

Municipal Bankruptcy & The Role of Intergovernmental Relations

August 18, 2015

Municipal Bankruptcy, Intergovernmental Relations, & Democracy. The San Bernardino City Council voted 4-2 late Monday to appropriate over half a million dollars to fund a new community center on the bankrupt city’s Westside—notwithstanding apprehensions the city might not be allowed to use the modular that will now be used for that purpose, much less concerns about how it might affect the city’s already difficult relations with the state. The center, once constructed, is intended to provide classes on aerobics, Zumba, nutrition, mental health, and English as a second language, in addition to partnering on other services. The financing is not to come from the bankrupt city’s general fund, but rather from the city’s CDBG grants. But it was only after a citizen at the session raised a question—after the first of the two votes needed to approve the center—that there appeared to be some recognition of a problem. The citizen asked how it was that that since the state had taken control of redevelopment how it was the Council could “wonder why the state is mad at you, you wonder why the state doesn’t want to help you? Maybe listen to yourselves, and wonder, ‘What am I doing?’” Indeed, City Manager Allen Parker responded to a follow-up question to staff that last year, when the city had requested the California Department of Finance to transfer redevelopment assets — items such as desks, computers, and this $158,000 modular, which the city-controlled agency had used until the statewide shut-down — to San Bernardino so the city could control them: the request had been rejected. The response triggered two Councilmembers to change their votes from aye to nay, with Councilmember Henry Nickel noting: “We have some very delicate negotiations going on with the state right now…The last thing I want to do is upset them. I want to be very clear on the legal ramifications of taking a $150,000-plus asset and using that for city use.” Notwithstanding, the rest kept their votes unchanged, demonstrating one of the many intergovernmental challenges that confront the city as it seeks to put together a plan of debt adjustment for the U.S. bankruptcy court’s approval, even as—in an election year—it must continue to govern the municipality. Indeed, community members have been asking for the community center since the city promised it before the state’s dissolution of the redevelopment agency.

As we have previously noted, the uneasy relationship between California cities and the state has played an important role in San Bernardino’s municipal bankruptcy, whether it be the suit filed by the state’s California retirement agency (CalPERS) for non-payment of the city’s prescribed contribution to the state’s public retirement system for its employees, or the—to this point—takeover and dissolution of local redevelopment agencies in 2012, a takeover at least in some part triggered by disagreement as to whether cities were consistently using the revenues from these redevelopment agencies as originally intended. More broadly, of course, the withdrawal of most California state direct financial aid to cities, which commenced some three decades ago in the wake of Proposition 13, has not only negatively impacted most cities in the state, but especially poorer cities such as San Bernardino—with fiscal insult added to injury via California’s redirection of some non-state revenues to specific programs including education and public safety, thereby shifting the expenditure burden from the state to its cities. State aid constitutes a very small percentage of revenue for cities in California—2% in the case of San Bernardino. This minute amount does little to even out disparities in fiscal capacity and need for cities such as San Bernardino. State actions in recent years—including changes in the motor vehicle license taxes and redevelopment agencies— have only served to exacerbate, rather than ameliorate San Bernardino’s fiscal problems.

The Painful Cost of Recovery. Notwithstanding some of the unique and fiscally creative partnerships engineered as part of the resolution of the Motor City’s record municipal bankruptcy recovery, Detroit will find that getting back on its four wheels will come at a high price: the city is expected to have to pay interest rates close to 5 percent in its maiden return to the municipal bond market on its sale set for tomorrow of some $245 million in bonds—the city’s first sale since emerging from municipal bankruptcy. The sale, which will be done through the Michigan Finance Authority, will provide that bondholders will have the first claim on Detroit’s income tax revenues, so as to ensure investors in the recovering city are repaid. Ergo, the 14-year bonds are being marketed at an initial yield of 4.75 percent, according to persons familiar with the sale, some 2.1 percentage points more than top-rated municipal securities. The high cost to Detroit’s taxpayers and the city’s budget is a reflection of the significant cuts the city’s g.o. bondholders received as part of the court-approved plan of debt adjustment, nearly a 60 percent reduction. Nevertheless, for the city—in stark contrast to virtual bankruptcy in state-local fiscal relations in California (please see above)—this is a key factor in the likely successful sale tomorrow: Michigan Gov. Rick Snyder, together the bipartisan leadership of the state leadership, enacted legislation to provide prospective Detroit municipal bondholders first claim to the Motor City’s income taxes—an innovative step to help in the city’s recovery—and one which earned an A rating for tomorrow’s sale from S&P–nine levels higher than its grade on Detroit’s general obligations. Moody’s, in mayhap a surprisingly upbeat mode, noted that Detroit’s employment has risen 3 percent over the past four years; more generously, the rating agency wrote that the Motor City’s income tax revenue rose 18 percent from 2010 to 2015. The proceeds from this week’s sale are intended to be devoted to repayment of a loan from Barclays plc that was a key to the city’s emergence from bankruptcy, as well as to help finance city projects, including upgrades for the fire department’s fleet. S&P wrote that Detroit’s income tax collections are strong enough to cover the bonds.

Arriba! The Puerto Rico Treasury Department reports that last month’s General Fund tax revenues for the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico came in 3.5% higher than budgeted, with sales and use tax collections coming in at a rate more than ten times (35.7%) greater than those for a year ago. The increased revenues included $21.1 million more than projected for the island’s General Fund. But the most significant increase came from individual income taxes: some $7.2 million more than projected, as well as foreign corporation excise taxes ($4.6 million ahead), and alcoholic beverage taxes ($4.5 million above projections). The biggest shortfall was for motor vehicle taxes, at $2.7 million. No doubt, the increase in the territory’s sales and use tax revenues was due in no small part to the rate rise from 7 to 11.5% which went into effect last July 1st; nevertheless, the Treasury reported the increased rate only contributed about $8 million directly to the sales and use tax revenue increase of $40.6 million in July compared to one year earlier—moreover, as Puerto Rico Treasury Secretary Juan Zaragoza Gómez noted, the sales and use tax realized revenue increases might have been spurred by a rush-to-beat-the rate increase which went into effect July 1st. But Sec. Zaragoza Gómez also noted that Puerto Rico’s completion last May of the last phase of an Integrated Merchant Portal collection of sales and use taxes at ports also likely contributed to the improvement in these tax collections. Finally, the Secretary also noted the government had reached settlements for back sales and use taxes owed with several large retailers last month—adding: “These collection efforts will continue during the coming months.” The rising revenues from traditional tax sources came as a Puerto Rican study group has recommended going ahead with converting Puerto Rico’s sales and use tax to a value added tax effective April Fools’ Day next year.

Failing Grade. S&P downgraded the Windy City’s Chicago Public Schools three notches, finding that its proposed budget would do little to address either its structural or liquidity woes. The rating agency also removed the credit from CreditWatch with negative implications and assigned a negative outlook, with analyst Jennifer Boyd scholastically writing: “The rating action reflects our view of the proposed fiscal 2016 budget, which includes what we view as the [school] Board’s continued structural imbalance and low liquidity with a reliance on external borrowing for cash flow needs.” The poor grades appear to reflect the system’s increased reliance in its proposed $6.4 billion FY2016 budget on more than $300 million from one-time revenues, not to mention an almost mythical assumption that the stalemated Governor and state legislature will provide CPS with $480 million in public pension funding assistance this year to close a $1.1 billion deficit—or, as CEO Forrest Claypool put it: “This budget reflects the reality of where we are today — facing a squeeze from both ends — in which CPS is receiving less state funding to pay our bills even as our pension obligations swell to nearly $700 million this year.” The hopes from CPS come as the stalemate in Springfield over passage of the state’s FY2016 budget has shown little to no progress—even as Chicago’s kids are already, no doubt, dreading the September 2nd return to the classrooms. CPS’s proposed budget assumes Illinois will help assume almost $200 million in CPS pension contributions—not unreasonable, as that would be in line with what the state contributes on behalf of other districts. The package could also be made up by shifting $170 million of the teachers’ contribution now paid by the district over to teachers, extending a payment amortization period, and possibly higher property taxes. Further, CPS last month announced some $200 million in cuts in the wake, last month, of its failed efforts to delay its FY2015 pension payment. The budget also relies on $250 million of debt relief primarily from $200 million in so-called scoop and toss refunding in which principal payments coming due are pushed off. CPS is proposing to draw down $75 million from reserves. Unsurprisingly, S&P does its math differently than CPS: the rating agency questions the school system’s arithmetic, wondering how it all adds up, especially because of CPS’ reliance on $480 million in, to date, unsecured state assistance for debt restructuring and reserves, both non-recurring revenue sources, adding: “The rating is also based on our view of the challenges the board faces in attempting to secure a sustainable long-term solution to its financial pressures, given the state’s own financial problems reflected in the current budget stalemate, and the board’s fiscal 2016 budget proposal that shows the continuation of a structural imbalance even if the board gets the assistance from the state.” The challenged fiscal math has already exacted a cost: CPS is paying a premium to borrow: its most recent issuance came at a yield of 5.63 percent on 25-year bonds—and that even with not only the system’s full faith and credit pledge, but also security via an alternate revenue pledge of state aid. The convoluted math, S&P totes up, is further jeopardized by next year’s expiration of the district’s teachers’ contract.

August 13, 2015

Municipal Bankruptcy & Public Safety. In California alone, 16 wildfires are burning 229,713 acres. So it is unsurprising that citizens and their elected leaders in San Bernardino have a significant stake in ensuring that any plan of debt adjustment approved by U.S. Bankruptcy Judge Meredith Jury ensures confidence, thereby guaranteeing there will be significant interest in the 28-page report (www.tinyurl.com/oraatpk) by fire consultant Citygate Associated the city released last night—a report recommending that the city’s fire department be annexed into the San Bernardino County Fire District. The report is consistent with the proposal recommended by San Bernardino City Manager Allen Parker; it is contrary to the position of the San Bernardino Fire Management Association. For both the city’s residents—and Judge Jury—the issue in bankruptcy is how to ensure the continuity of essential public services.  In its report to the city, Citygate evaluated the ability of three bidders — county fire, city fire, and Florida-based private firm Centerra — to meet certain key staffing standards. The report recommends San Bernardino County take over, under a plan which would include keeping 10 current city fire stations open, closing two, and adding the use of one additional county fire station, noting: “The best cost-to-services choice is County Fire’s Option C for 14 units and 41 firefighters (per shift) at $26,307,731 which includes sharing the use of a nearby County Fire station and Battalion Chief that can assist with covering part of the western City.” While the mere suggestion of privatizing or turning over control of a municipality’s fire department to another jurisdiction has traditionally been a sure fire road to unelection, it has actually become more prevalent in other parts of San Bernardino County and other areas in California. Indeed, San Bernardino Councilman Henry Nickel compared the modest opposition by constituents to the proposal to the outpouring of opposition when a community sent a robocall asking citizens to oppose privatizing the Fire Department, noting to the San Bernardino Sun yesterday: “My phone was literally on fire for two days…My voice mail filled up within about an hour of that robo call going out, and it took me two or three days to catch up. But since this article came out (outlining the report), I’ve received one phone call today regarding the county versus city debate…I think it’s very clear that Centerra is not something the public by and large supports, but — I hate to use the word resignation, but I think much of the public understands that the county medicine is probably the one we’ll have to take…It’s not something we want to do, but it’s something we might have to do.” City spokeswoman Monica Lagos posted a summary of the report and the city’s next steps here (www.tinyurl.com/pbogaxr). A special meeting, including a presentation of the report and a chance for resident comment, is scheduled for a week from Monday.

The uncontrollable nature of wildfires adds a combustible to the already complex challenge of elected leaders of a municipality in bankruptcy—with elections pending in November—creating a difficult balancing set of public as compared to campaign responsibilities. Unlike Donald Trump, the decision to file for bankruptcy for the city’s elected leaders is something no elected leader ever wants to do. And then the responsibility to approve a plan of debt adjustment to the federal bankruptcy court—even while contemplating a re-election campaign amidst the combustion of wildfires and politics is evidence of the extraordinary challenges and decisions ahead which will affect so many citizens—and their safety—not to mention the future of a city.

Jailhouse Rock. Wayne County’s elected leaders are scheduled to consider the proposed fiscal consent agreement between Michigan and the County today—an agreement intended to offer ways to improve Wayne County’s cash position, reduce underfunding in its pension system, and eliminate the county’s$52 million structural deficit—and be a governing alternative starkly different than in neighboring Detroit where the state preempted local authority through the appointment of an emergency manager. The consent agreement allows for the commission and Chairman Evans to “retain their respective authority.” The document has a number of highlighted sections on issues such as employee relations and changes that can be made to expired contracts, state financial management and technical assistance, and a prohibition against new debt unless approved by the State Treasurer. It also specifically mentions pension obligations and other employee contract commitments as at least a factor in the county’s financial troubles. But the major point of the agreement that will likely gain close scrutiny by many who work for the county is the authority it grants Chairman Evans to act as the sole agent of the county in collective bargaining with employees or representatives and approve any contract or agreement. The agreement will also address—and affect—the county’s jails, whose conditions have already been the subject of a court order this year, as Wayne County—and jail host Detroit—consider the future of the unfinished facility. In its review of Wayne County’s finances, the state noted the county’s unfinished jail and its $4.5 billion in long-term obligations as problems that need to be addressed, and mandated Wayne County to put together a plan to “adequately meet the county’s needs for adult detention facilities…” The County’s elected leaders, who are scheduled to discuss the agreement tomorrow, have just over three weeks in which to approve the document—an agreement which Wayne County Chairman Warren Evans very much hopes will be the key to resolving the county’s structural debt and unsustainable fiscal future: the proposed recovery plan lays out $230 million in cuts over four years.

Whether and how the plan will get the County and Detroit out from behind the fiscal bars will be a subset—but one with critical implications for the future relationship of the two jurisdictions, as well as for the county’s fiscal sustainability. The jail—in downtown Detroit on which Wayne County broke ground for construction four years ago—is an exceptional fiscal millstone: some two years after construction was halted because of ballooning expenses, the failed Wayne County jail project is still costing taxpayers more than $1 million a month. The plan was to build a $300-million state-of-the-art jail in downtown Motown four years ago—a plan which today features a costly pile of steel and concrete — fenced and guarded — with construction costs of $151 million, and an ever growing fiscal tab for county taxpayers of an average of $1.2 million every month. Thus, not only is the jail a sticking point between the two jurisdictions, but also a severe fiscal drain—or as the County described the situation last May: “Due to the county’s financial state, anything done on the Gratiot jail will just add to the deficit. Once the deficit has been solved, the county can move forward with options on whether to finish the Gratiot site or renovate the three existing jails. As the county makes progress on its recovery plan, it will better be able to solve the jail issue.” Worse, it appears that much of the debt issued by Wayne County for the jail’s construction has been diverted for other purposes—meaning Wayne County is spending as much as $1.2 million each month from its general fund. According to County officials, only $49 million remains from the $200 million in bonds Wayne County sold to finance the unfinished jail—a borrowing forcing the county to make interest payments on of $1.1 million monthly—even as it is spending nearly $55,000 each month on unfinished jail-related costs, including: security ($10,849), sump pump maintenance ($12,852), and electricity to the site ($4,000).